Indigenous South American group has healthiest arteries of all populations yet studied, providing clues to healthy lifestyle

The Tsimane people — a forager-horticulturalist population of the Bolivian Amazon — have the lowest reported levels of vascular aging for any population, with coronary atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) being five times less common than in the US, according to a study published in The Lancet and being presented at the American College of Cardiology conference.

The researchers propose that the loss of subsistence diets and lifestyles in contemporary society could be classed as a new risk factor for heart disease. The main risk factors are age, smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes.

“Our study shows that the Tsimane indigenous South Americans have the lowest prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis of any population yet studied,” said senior anthropology author, Professor Hillard Kaplan, University of New Mexico, USA. “Their lifestyle suggests that a diet low in saturated fats and high in non-processed fibre-rich carbohydrates, along with wild game and fish, not smoking and being active throughout the day could help prevent hardening in the arteries of the heart. The loss of subsistence diets and lifestyles could be classed as a new risk factor for vascular aging and we believe that components of this way of life could benefit contemporary sedentary populations.”

Although the Tsimane lifestyle is very different from that of contemporary society, certain elements of it are transferable and could help to reduce risk of heart disease.

While industrial populations are sedentary for more than half of their waking hours (54%), the Tsimane spend only 10% of their daytime being inactive. They live a subsistence lifestyle that involves hunting, gathering, fishing and farming, where men spend an average of 6-7 hours of their day being physically active and women spend 4-6 hours.

Their diet is largely carbohydrate-based (72%) and includes non-processed carbohydrates which are high in fibre such as rice, plantain, manioc, corn, nuts and fruits. Protein constitutes 14% of their diet and comes from animal meat. The diet is very low in fat with fat compromising only 14% of the diet — equivalent to an estimated 38 grams of fat each day, including 11g saturated fat and no trans fats. In addition, smoking was rare in the population.

In the observational study, the researchers visited 85 Tsimane villages between 2014 and 2015. They measured the participants’ risk of heart disease by taking CT scans of the hearts of 705 adults (aged 40-94 years old) to measure the extent of hardening of the coronary arteries, as well as measuring weight, age, heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose and inflammation.

Based on their CT scan, almost nine in 10 of the Tsimane people (596 of 705 people, 85%) had no risk of heart disease, 89 (13%) had low risk and only 20 people (3%) had moderate or high risk. These findings also continued into old age, where almost two-thirds (65%, 31 of 48) of those aged over 75 years old had almost no risk and 8% (4 of 48) had moderate or high risk. These results are the lowest reported levels of vascular aging of any population recorded to date.

By comparison, a US study of 6814 people (aged 45 to 84) found that only 14% of Americans had a CT scan that suggested no risk of heart disease and half (50%) had a moderate or high risk — a five-fold higher prevalence than in the Tsimane population.

In the Tsimane population, heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose were also low, potentially as a result of their lifestyle. The researchers also note that the low risk of coronary atherosclerosis was identified despite there being elevated levels of inflammation in half of the Tsimane population (51%, 360 of 705 people).

“Conventional thinking is that inflammation increases the risk of heart disease,” said Professor Randall Thompson, cardiologist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute, USA. “However, the inflammation common to the Tsimane was not associated with increased risk of heart disease, and may instead be the result of high rates of infections.”

Because the study is observational it cannot confirm how the Tsimane population is protected from vascular aging, or which part of their lifestyle (diet, physical activity or smoking) is most protective. The researchers suggest it is more likely to be a result of their lifestyle than genetics, because of a gradual increase in cholesterol levels coinciding with a rapidly changing lifestyle.

“Over the last five years, new roads and the introduction of motorised canoes have dramatically increased access to the nearby market town to buy sugar and cooking oil,” said Dr Ben Trumble, Arizona State University, USA. “This is ushering in major economic and nutritional changes for the Tsimane people.”

The researchers did not study whether coronary artery hardening in the Tsimane population impacted on their health, but note that deaths from heart attacks are very uncommon in the population so it is likely that their low levels of atherosclerosis and heart disease are associated. The researchers are investigating this in further research.

“This study suggests that coronary atherosclerosis could be avoided if people adopted some elements of the Tsimane lifestyle, such as keeping their LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar very low, not smoking and being physically active,” said senior cardiology author Dr Gregory S. Thomas, Long Beach Memorial Medical Centre, USA. “Most of the Tsimane are able to live their entire life without developing any coronary atherosclerosis. This has never been seen in any prior research. While difficult to achieve in the industrialized world, we can adopt some aspects of their lifestyle to potentially forestall a condition we thought would eventually effect almost all of us.”

Female Pet Owners May Be Less Likely to Die of Stroke

U.S. women over age 50 and generally healthy were less likely to die of cardiovascular events like stroke if they had a cat or dog, the researchers found.

After accounting for the increase in physical activity required of dog owners, owning a cat instead of a dog was still tied to a lower risk of death from stroke.

Female Pet Owners May Be Less Likely to Die of Stroke

The researchers studied almost 4,000 adults age 50 and older without major illnesses who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1988 to 1994 and who reported their pet ownership.

Participants also answered questions about physical activity, weight and height, cigarette smoking and other health risk factors. More than half were overweight or obese.

About 35 percent of people owned a pet, most often a dog. Pet owners tended to be younger, more often were married, and more often were white.

According to the National Death Index, as of 2006, 11 of every 1,000 non-pet owners had died of cardiovascular disease, compared to about 7 of every 1,000 pet owners.

Specifically for stroke, male pet owners were just as likely to have died, but female pet owners were about 40 percent less likely to have died of stroke.

Most of this association was driven by cat ownership, according to results in High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Prevention.

“Anecdotally, we believe that walking a dog is good for heart, reducing life pressure andblood pressure as well,” said senior author Jian Zhang of the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in the U.S.

“I strongly believe that putative benefits of keeping a dog have not yet fully translated into reality, and we found that pet owners did not walk pets, certainly, dogs, more often than others,” Zhang said. “This explains why owning a dog did not reduce CVD mortality among dog owners.”

Cat owners may have a personality that protects their hearts, rather than cats actually having a concrete effect on heart health, he said.

“We are short of overall assessment of the associations of companion animals with human health, and our study should not be interpreted to encourage more people to own pets, either dog or cat,” Zhang said. “Pets are good, but have to be kept responsibly.”

“In my study, there was a tendency for pet owners to have a higher risk of dying,” said Dr. Richard F. Gillum of Howard University College of Medicine in Washington D.C., who was not part of the new study but did study the same NHANES surveys.

Most findings show no association between pets and survival, he said.

“Data from NHANES are really inadequate to settle the question, since one can only determine there was a pet in the household, but not the number of pets or whether the study participant was the owner, cared for it or interacted with it,” Gillum said. “So we need to wait for better studies before making any firm conclusions about pets and survival among their owners.”

“Even if there were a reduction of death from stroke among women with cats, of what importance is that in public health terms if they are just as likely to die as other women, just from another cause,” he said.

International Yoga Day: Embrace Yoga to Age Gracefully, Say Experts

Yoga won’t give you immortality but this ancient discipline of bringing union between the body, mind and spirit can definitely help you fight age – both physical and mental, say health and wellness experts.

International Yoga Day: Embrace Yoga to Age Gracefully, Say Experts

“In my practice in India and abroad I have seen several cases where my clients have gotten better by regular yoga, pranayam and meditation,” Preeti Rao, Health, Lifestyle and Wellness Consultant at Max Healthcare.

Regular yoga practice can help fight chronic lifestyle diseases like hypertension, hormonal imbalances, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and respiratory and cardiovascular related health concerns. Besides people with obesity, anxiety, constipation and digestive disorders can benefit significantly from practising yoga, according to the experts.

“From diabetes to high blood pressure, high cholesterol to heart problems, yoga can help you combat many such health issues that usually develop over the years. Also, arthritis is one of the most common problems among elderly people and yoga is a great way to tone it down and help the body become more active and flexible,” said Nidhi Arora, physiotherapist at AktivOrtho, an orthopaedic, neurological and gynaecological rehabilitation centre.

“Individuals prone to osteoporosis or are already suffering from the problem can gain a lot from yoga as a daily life discipline which increases bone density and growth. To keep a watch over increase in weight as well, yoga proves to be very helpful,” Arora noted.

Yoga can improve blood flow in the body and increase oxygen supply to body cells. It helps improve balance which tends to become weak as one ages, acclaimed fitness expert and nutritionist Sonia Bajaj said. What’s more, the benefits of yoga transcends physical fitness alone.

“Yoga is not limited to yoga or physical exercise,” Rao said.

Scholarly studies and research in this area have strongly documented how yoga helps in improving cognitive abilities.

“Pranayama helps one to attain a better balance between the right and left-brain bringing more balance between emotional and rational thinking. Meditation facilitates a process of introspection, and brings more clarity and focus in one’s life. Regular yoga also improves memory,” Rao noted.

“A regular yoga practice even for just 20-30 minutes daily that is simple and involves varied breathing exercises and mediation is what I would recommend to remain sharp, alert and for a balanced life,” she added.

A recent study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease found that a three-month course of Kundalini yoga and Kirtan Kriya meditation practice helped minimise the cognitive and emotional problems that often precede Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, brain disorders that impair the memory.

Kirtan Kriya, which involves chanting, hand movements and visualisation of light, has been practiced for hundreds of years in India as a way to prevent cognitive decline in older adults. Yoga and meditation was even more effective than the memory enhancement exercises that have been considered the gold standard for managing mild cognitive impairment, the findings showed.

“Historically and anecdotally, yoga has been thought to be beneficial in ageing well, but this is the scientific demonstration of that benefit,” lead author of the study Harris Eyre, doctoral candidate at the University of Adelaide in Australia, said.

“If you or your relatives are trying to improve your memory or offset the risk for developing memory loss or dementia, a regular practice of yoga and meditation could be a simple, safe and low-cost solution to improving your brain fitness,” Helen Lavretsky, the study’s senior author and professor in residence in the department of psychiatry, University of California-Los Angeles, suggested.

“Yoga forms like asana, pranayama and a regular devotion towards meditation are such strong tools that they are bound to invigorate the brain, help enhance the power of the mind and stimulate the nervous system as well. Yoga should be taken seriously as results from it are long-lasting and life-changing for sure,” Arora noted.

However, with many different types of yoga being practiced today, it is important for you to find out with the help of experts which type of yoga meets your needs, she said.

Soon, a botanical drug to cure dengue!

New Delhi: In what could be termed as a major advance in dengue treatment, scientists from India claimed to have come up with a novel botanical drug which will cure the world’s fastest growing mosquito-borne disease.

Sun Pharma, India’s largest pharmaceutical company, has signed an agreement with the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) on Wednesday to develop a novel plant-based drug to combat the dengue that afflicts at least 100,000 and kills at least 200 in India anually.

The drug, Cipa, is being developed from a plant called Cissampelos pariera, also known as abuta or laghupatha. Recently, they reported the potency of this plant in treating the disease.

Sun Pharma will develop Cipa, scientifically called Cissampelos Pareira, by following a drug registration process similar to that for a new chemical entity, consisting of all required in vitro, in vivo, pre-clinical and clinical studies meeting regulatory standards in India and worldwide, a joint statement issued by Sun Pharma and ICGEB said.

According to Navin Khanna, senior scientist at ICGEB, New Delhi and the group leader of the project, atleast 10 scientist have been working on this for at least 10 years now, studying at least 10 species of plants. He also added that each of the plants showed the characteristics to fight the symptoms of dengue.

It is said that the drug has completed pre-clinical work, through all phases of clinical studies.

Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti.

Dengue currently threatens about half the world’s population or almost 4 billion people, which leads to an estimated 60-100 million symptomatic dengue cases every year.

With no specific dengue therapeutics and prevention being currently available, the development is being seen as a major advance in dengue treatment.

One-sixth of Brazil’s microcephaly cases linked to Zika

Brasilia: Microcephaly cases in Brazil have increased to 1,271, and almost one-sixth are linked to the Zika virus.

 

Brazilian health ministry on Wednesday said between October 22 and April 30 out of 1,271 microcephaly cases 203 tested positive for the Zika virus.

The numbers were expected to further rise as the investigation was still ongoing, Xinhua news agency reported.

During the period, 267 babies died suspectedly from microcephaly or other abnormalities with the central nervous system during pregnancy or after labour.

The Zika virus, like dengue fever and chikungunya, is spread by the “Aedes aegypti” mosquito which is common in the Latin American and Caribbean region.

Brazil, one of the worst affected countries, registered the largest number of microphaly in newborns, supposedly related to the virus.

The Brazilian government declared a state of health emergency in November 2015.

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a health emergency of international concern on February 1, 2016, due to the rapid spread of Zika.

Practitioners Seek Standards for Ayurveda Medicines

Ayurveda practitioners seek standards for Ayurvedic medicines

Ayurveda practitioners from across the country assembled to sought standards for Ayurvedic medicines to popularize Ayurveda and create more awareness among people about its health benefits. They also sought from the Centre substantial hike in funding for Ayurveda for research work and creating health infrastructure across the country.

Practitioners Seek Standards for Ayurveda Medicines

“Standards for Ayurveda medicines should be formed in order to create awareness among people about its health benefits,” All India Ayurveda Congress President Devender Triguna said. Recently, All India Ayurveda Congress has held its 58th session here which was attended by President Pranab Mukherjee

Vaidyas (who practice Ayurveda) pointed out that it was essential to come out with standards or certification for Ayurveda medicines so as to make it more popular among people about its “purity”. “Our strength is purity and there should be standard to measure it. The standards for Ayurveda medicines should be set like we have ISI mark which will help in building more confidence among people about its remedies,” said Ayurveda medicine maker Shree Dhootapapeshwar, ED, Ranjit Puranik.

President Pranab Mukherjee had asked to “demystify and popularize” Ayurvedic medicine through “informative marketing and user-friendly packaging”. “Ayurveda and Siddha had laid down protocols for treating diseases that resembled diseases that we know today as HIV and tuberculosis,” Mukherjee had said.

Presently, the combined market of Ayurvedic medicines along with naturopathy, Unani is pegged at Rs. 14,000 crore, growing at a rate of 12-14 per cent per annum. Triguna further demanded from the Centre to earmark at least 20 per cent of total health budget for Ayurveda, saying it was essential for carrying out research in this oldest form of medicine and building necessary infrastructure in this regard.

Trend for coloured hair takes its inspiration from childhood toys

Not for the first time, the latest hair trend requires you to dig deep into your past: welcome to the rise of My Little Pony hair. Inspired by the colourful manes of the little plastic toys, rainbow hair has become the go-to hair trend for young women.

Bleach salon, which recently branched out from east London to Soho, arguably pioneered the trend for extreme hair colour which has seen pink, dip dye (where the ends are “dipped” in a contrasting colour) and even premature grey become trend fixtures.

Georgia May Jagger has opted for multicoloured hair.

According to Bleach founder Alex Brownsell, rainbow-coloured hair is the next logical step in hair colour.

She said: “Hair trends tend to move in 10-year cycles. Over eight years ago, we did our first dip dye but now, almost a decade later, it’s sort of everywhere. The young kids don’t want dip dyes anymore, they feel it’s too mainstream.”

The trend, she explains, stems partly from rebellion and partly from nostalgia. “We all dyed our hair when we were kids to rebel, and there’s something about the attention that you got from it which felt addictive.”

She says the rise of extreme colours references the 80s and 90s punk scene. The main difference now is that the focus is primarily on colour not cut.

“It’s inspired by punks and cyber kids but the cuts now tend to be long and feminine, that soft 1970s look. This look is far more feminine. In fact, if someone came in with a punky haircut, I’d advise them against getting multicoloured hair. It’s moved on from that.”

Like most trends, rainbow hair has trickled down from the catwalk. Bright hair appeared on the AW15 Louis Vuitton catwalk and on models such as Soo Joo Park.

Danish model Chloe Norgaard has become an alternative poster girl for rainbow-coloured hair. “I was fed up with having to fit into what my agencies were saying I had to look like,” she says. “It was an act of rebellion, I was like, screw this, I’m going blue and once I did I felt great.”

Britney Spears and Katy Perry also went rainbow this summer. Brownsell dyed the hair of model Georgia May Jagger, in part, as a last hurrah. “A lot of models get it done now so it’ll fade out in time for fashion week when she’ll have to fit what the client wants.”

Natalia McDonald, from Premier models, which represents Norgaard, says: “If a designer’s inspiration for a season is based on subcultures, tattoos and piercings could enhance that and, therefore, the casting director is more likely to use models with those attributes.”

Instagram also plays a role. There are almost 200,000 rainbowhair hashtags on social media, throwing up a variety of looks.

“Models now share all the details of their lives with their followers,” says McDonald. “So rather than it being a new trend, I would say the development of technology has moved us into this era.”

According to Brownsell, hair colour is becoming more important than haircuts: “Multicoloured hair could be seen as this generation’s ‘Rachel’ [the long layered cut popularised by Jennifer Aniston’s character in TV series Friends]. I think for people our age, 20s at least, the look is very much about not cutting your hair into ‘a cut’.”

Even men are embracing extreme colour. “Green hair is a big trend on young men – One Direction’s Zayn Malik; Jared Leto, who got it done for his role as The Joker.”

Could rainbow hair be next? “I don’t see why not, I think it’s natural progress,” says Brownsell.

Wallflowers need not be too unsettled by the trend. “It’s actually an extension of what’s happening in hair colour in general. I have multicoloured blonde hair, multicoloured balayage [a dye-application technique] is also a thing, browns and red blended together. Even L’Oreal are talking about bronde [a blend of brown and blonde]. It’s less extreme than it sounds and actually, as a trend, almost mainstream.”

Black hair: why it’s time to stop politicising it

For nearly a century, black men’s and women’s hair has been a political declaration, a cultural statement, a social media moment – and sometimes all three.

Think Angela Davis, fist raised at a 1960s Black Panther rally; Pam Grier, “the baddest one-chick hit-squad” in the 1970s movie Coffy; Erykah Badu looking skyward on the cover of her 2003 album Worldwide Underground, Solange Knowles holding court in a white cape at her 2014 wedding, and, most recently, Lineisy Montero being named fashion’s breakout model of the year.

Afro hair has been the stuff of books, university courses and documentaries, its history too long and heady to be expounded here. But as the sight of black hair in its unpermed, unstraightened state becomes ever more common in fashion and the media, one thing has become clear: it’s time to stop making black hair a thing.

I say this after Taraji P Henson – the actor who plays Cookie Lyon in Empire, the hip-hop answer to Dynasty – made headlines for choosing to pose for a magazine without a wig or weave, instead opting for the cornrows she typically wears underneath them. Really?

Henson rightfully deserves a round of applause for celebrating and showing off her natural beauty, but we don’t need to dissect it every time a woman chooses to do so.

Model Lineisy Montero on the Rochas Spring/Summer 2016 catwalk.

The power of the natural hair movement lies in the fact that black women the world over are rejecting the damaging chemicals of hair-straightening perms and embracing the natural beauty of their kinks and curls. When Bruce Weber saw her intricately braided hair and suggested he shoot her like that, Henson told CR Fashion Book: “Part of me was like, ‘No, no, no, NO!’ This is the hair no one is supposed to see. This is like behind-closed-doors hair. I feel naked. I feel like a plucked chicken … or a wet one. A baby chicken! But Bruce says to me: ‘It’s not about the hair, it’s your face.’”

When she posted an image from the shoot on Instagram, she wrote: “I decided not to block art and just let it be free.”

“Let it be free” are the key words here. In the same way that curls look best when they haven’t been weighed down with too much product, the natural hair movement has its biggest impact when it’s simply able to exist without any qualifiers.

In his latest book, Between the World and Me, the much-lauded cultural critic Ta-Nehisi Coates described the changes the world has seen from his childhood to his son’s boyhood: “Your life is so very different from my own. I don’t know what it means to grow up with a black president, social networks, omnipresent media and black women everywhere in their natural hair.”

As a woman who has grown up in and around the discussion and unpacking of the cultural meaning of black hair, I can’t help but think that in a year in which we watched actress Zendaya Coleman shamefully ridiculed for wearing dreadlocks to the Academy Awards or Hunger Games actress Amandla Stenberg criticised for defending the history of cornrows, the most progressive thing we can do would be to stop politicising it all.

I’m an American who lives in London. Many of my friends on both sides of the Atlantic are women, and many of them are black, and many of them wear their hair in its natural state. But I can’t say that their decisions to do so are the same as each others’, or the same as those of the women who rejected the pressing comb in past decades. It’s not always a reaction against anything, but rather an act of self-care and joy. The millions of natural hair blogs, vlogs and communities that have sprung up around this idea – celebrating the sheer fun, transformative power and singular beauty of hair – prove my point.

Society evolves, and the way we fashion ourselves advances with it. When I interviewed Lineisy Montero for this newspaper after her breakout appearance in the Prada show in March, her reason for wearing her hair curly was simple: “I love it. I feel very comfortable,” she said. And, as Henson’s experience proves, sometimes it’s as simple as that.

Denim hair: what does it mean?

Denim hair is the latest online hair trend, and became more than simply a hashtag when Kylie Jenner did it last week. Like rainbow hair, it is less about what you look like IRL and more about what looks good on Instagram.

This internetification of our physical appearance means we are bound by the logic of the web: the bigger the wow factor, the bigger the impact.

The rise of the selfie also means the focus is now on your shoulders and your head – “portraiting”. In this context, individual features (your lips, your eyes) become more important – and your hair becomes the ultimate accessory.

Kylie Jenner

It also helps that it looks really good: the way the shades fall within the locks of hair is positively Rubenesque. Plus, it looks even better under the Instagram filters Ludwig and Mayfair. “The colour now commonly recognised as Denim Blue – a dusty grey/blue, has been popular in our salon for a while now,” explains Alex Brownsell of Bleach. “The colour denim is being seen as high fashion for the first time, featuring a lot on the catwalk by super modern brands such as Vetements.”

But what does it mean? Well if the wearing of denim has connotations of being an outlaw when the colour is transported to your hair, that meaning is underlined. In this context, celebrities like Jenner and Joe Jonas dying their hair shades of grey and pink (shades that suggest a subversion of the norms), can be seen as the hair equivalent of raising a middle finger to the world. Online, your hair becomes a coded symbol of rebellion and freedom.

Zayn Malik, who has jumped around the hair colour spectrum since leaving One Direction, has vocalised this. “I … wanted to dye my hair when I was in the band, but I wasn’t allowed to,” he told Complex. No prizes for guessing which shade he will go for next …

Rainbow children: how the dip-dye trend has gone from shocking to mainstream

Ten years is a long time for any trend to stay relevant, not least a hairstyle. But this year it will be a full decade since the “dip-dye” caught on with a certain type of fashion-conscious woman – think models such as Charlotte Free or the singer M.I.A. However, now that Kim Kardashian has adopted the two-tone look, it seems set to become one of the defining hairstyles of the age.

A dip-dye involves leaving the roots undyed, or dark, and the ends bleached or coloured. “That whole two-tone look has evolved quite a bit,” explains Alex Brownsell, founder of the London salon Bleach, who arguably invented the dip-dye as we know it. “The first five years we did it, it was shocking. Now it’s fashion-conscious, but it’s not a trend any more.” Her comments may be damning on one level, but are perhaps more indicative of the way the undyed-roots/dyed-ends look has moved firmly into the mainstream. Zoella, Katy Perry and Lady Gaga have all dabbled in the trend.

For the past few years dyeing has trumped cuts as the cheaper, less permanent way to change your look, says Brownsell – pink hair (very 2008), grey hair (2010, and now resurgent among men) and multi-coloured hair (thanks last year to model Georgia May Jagger) have all had their moments.

Rebel Wilson sporting the dip-dyed look.

But perhaps in reaction to that proliferation of dyed hair, Brownsell thinks that “the cut is coming back among young women. Dip-dyes have become mainstream in the sense that they’re national. It used to be a London thing; now it’s everywhere,” she says. “That said, I don’t think we’ve had anything that has come close to trumping it, and I can’t see it happening for a while.”

Samantha Cusick, a colourist at Taylor Taylor in Shoreditch, east London, says she has seen a shift in the past five years from dip-dyes to balayage, a subtler, more natural take on two-tone colour that derives from the French word to sweep or paint. Its popularity has grown, she thinks, because it lends itself to more bespoke styles. Bleach’s Instagram, which acts as a sort of stylebook of colour trends, has more than 250,000 followers. Cusick’s own has almost 25,000. “It is mainstream, but that isn’t a bad thing,” she says.

With its undyed roots and washed-out ends, the dip-dye look suggests fashion has reverted to that done/undone look that mirrors that other hipster-turned-mainstream favourite, the beard.

But why has the dip-dye, undeniable fashion shorthand for the female hipster, not met with the same level of derision as the beard? Aesthetically speaking, they are poles apart, but both looks suggest a lax approach to vanity, even though both are high-maintenance. Two years ago, researchers declared that “peak beard” had been reached. “It appears that beards gain an advantage when rare, but when they are in fashion and common they are declared ‘trendy’ and that attractiveness is over,” researcher Robert Brooks says. Yet the dip-dye has become mainstream while remaining an acceptable fashion statement.

Perhaps it is because of the tendency to fixate on men when talking about the much-derided notion of hipster fashion. “When you write hipster, everyone immediately knows what – or who – you’re talking about. And it’s always, always a man,” says culture journalist Leonie Cooper. “Men still have such a limited pool to draw from when it comes to fashion. Women have always had permission to be more extravagant and outlandish.” Cooper thinks it’s down to the range of trends available to women: “There’s so much women can draw from in terms of style, hair included.

“But if a man suddenly decides to start wearing a 1940s three-piece suit or a James Dean white T-shirt and trousers, he’s suddenly doing ‘a look’ and opening himself up to ridicule. I don’t think men are as open to chatting about their style as women are presumed to be.”

But if the fate of the beard is anything to go by, the dip-dye hairstyle may soon move into the realms of parody, with Kardashian’s belated adoption ringing its death knell.